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How the Sinopharm Covid-19 Vaccine Works





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#In early 2020, the #Beijing #Institute of #Biological #Products created an inactivated coronavirus vaccine called BBIBP-CorV. #It was later put into clinical trials by the state-owned #Chinese company #Sinopharm. #On #Dec. 30, #Sinopharm announced that the vaccine had an efficacy of 79.34 percent. The vaccine is now in use in #Bahrain and the #United #Arab #Emirates. #Sinopharm has also applied to the #Chinese government for approval.

A #Vaccine #Made #From #Coronaviruses

BBIBP-CorV works by teaching the immune system to make antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The antibodies attach to viral proteins, such as the so-called spike proteins that stud its surface.

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#To create BBIBP-CorV, the #Beijing #Institute researchers obtained three variants of the coronavirus from patients in #Chinese hospitals. They picked one of the variants because it was able to multiply quickly in monkey kidney cells grown in bioreactor tanks.

#Killing the #Virus

#Once the researchers produced large stocks of the coronaviruses, they doused them with a chemical called beta-propiolactone. The compound disabled the coronaviruses by bonding to their genes. The inactivated coronaviruses could no longer replicate. #But their proteins, including spike, remained intact.







The researchers then drew off the inactivated viruses and mixed them with a tiny amount of an aluminum-based compound called an adjuvant. #Adjuvants stimulate the immune system to boost its response to a vaccine.

#Inactivated viruses have been used for over a century. #Jonas #Salk used them to create his polio vaccine in the 1950s, and they’re the bases for vaccines against other diseases including rabies and hepatitis A.

#Prompting an #Immune #Response

#Because the coronaviruses in BBIBP-CorV are dead, they can be injected into the arm without causing #Covid-19. #Once inside the body, some of the inactivated viruses are swallowed up by a type of immune cell called an antigen-presenting cell.






#Presenting

virus protein

fragments

#Presenting

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#Presenting

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The antigen-presenting cell tears the coronavirus apart and displays some of its fragments on its surface. A so-called helper T cell may detect the fragment. #If the fragment fits into one of its surface proteins, the T cell becomes activated and can help recruit other immune cells to respond to the vaccine.

#Making #Antibodies

#Another type of immune cell, called a B cell, may also encounter the inactivated coronavirus. B cells have surface proteins in a huge variety of shapes, and a few might have the right shape to latch onto the coronavirus. #When a B cell locks on, it can pull part or all of the virus inside and present coronavirus fragments on its surface.

A helper T cell activated against the coronavirus can latch onto the same fragment. #When that happens, the B cell gets activated, too. #It proliferates and pours out antibodies that have the same shape as their surface proteins.






#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface

proteins

#Matching

surface

proteins

#Matching

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proteins

#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface proteins

#Matching

surface proteins


#Stopping the #Virus

#Once vaccinated with BBIBP-CorV, the immune system can respond to an infection of live coronaviruses. B cells produce antibodies that stick to the invaders. #Antibodies that target the spike protein can prevent the virus from entering cells. #Other kinds of antibodies may block the virus by other means.


#Remembering the #Virus

#Sinopharm’s clinical trials have demonstrated that BBIBP-CorV can protect people against #Covid-19. #But no one can yet say how long that protection lasts. #It’s possible that the level of antibodies drops over the course of months. #But the immune system also contains special cells called memory B cells that might retain information about the coronavirus for years or even decades.

#Vaccine #Timeline

#January, 2020 #Sinopharm begins developing an inactivated vaccine against the coronavirus.

#June #Researchers report the vaccine produces promising results in monkeys. A #Phase 1/2 trial shows that the vaccine doesn’t cause any serious side effects and enables people to make antibodies against the coronavirus.



A #Sinopharm production plant in #Beijing.#Zhang #Yuwei/Xinhua, via #Associated #Press

#July A #Phase 3 trial begins in the #United #Arab #Emirates.

#August #Phase 3 trials begin in #Morocco and #Peru.



#Preparing a #Sinopharm dose in #Lima, #Peru.#Ernesto #Benavides / #Agence #France-Presse

#Sept. 14 The U.A.E. gives emergency approval for #Sinopharm’s vaccine to use on health care workers. #Government officials and others begin to receive it.

#November The chairman of #Sinopharm says almost a million people in #China have received #Sinopharm vaccines.

#Nov. 3 The ruler of #Dubai, #Sheikh #Mohammed bin #Rashid al-Maktoum, announces he received the vaccine.



#Sheikh #Mohammed before receiving the vaccine.#France #Media #Agency

#Dec. 9 The U.A.E. gives full approval to BBIBP-CorV, announcing it has an efficacy rate of 86 percent. #But the government did not release any details with their announcement, leaving it unclear how they had come to their conclusions.

#Dec. 13 #Bahrain also approves the vaccine.



#Vials of the #Sinopharm vaccine at a packaging plant.#Zhang #Yuwei/Xinhua, via #Associated #Press

#Dec. 30 #Sinopharm announces that the vaccine has an efficacy of 79.34 percent. The company has yet to publish the detailed results of their #Phase 3 trial.


#Sources: #National #Center for #Biotechnology #Information; #Science; The #Lancet; #Lynda #Coughlan, #University of #Maryland #School of #Medicine; #Jenna #Guthmiller, #University of #Chicago.

#Tracking the #Coronavirus






[ source link ]
https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/health/sinopharm-covid-19-vaccine.html

##Sinopharm ##Covid19 ##Vaccine ##Works

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