Wednesday, January 20, 2021
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#Today is #New #Years #Eve. #Fortunately, 2021 begins at midnight. #Everywhere, as the expansion of #European culture to the rest of the world meant that #January 1 was also imposed as #New #Year’s #Day. #But it was not always like this. The #Chinese celebrated it on the second new moon after the winter solstice, between #January and #February; the #Hindus, two days after the feast of #Diwali, in mid-November; the #Iranians, on the spring equinox, in #March; the #Aymara and the #Quechuas, with the summer solstice, towards the end of #June; the #Jews, finally, for the month of #September (#Rosh #Hashanah). They all needed a start date, so they could measure time.

#How to measure time? #From the phases of the moon? #Based on movement around the sun? #And when starts time, what day in the history of mankind? #For #Christians, of course, with the birth of #Christ (#December 25, year 1). #For #Muslims, with the #Hijra, the name of the journey that #Muhammad undertakes from #Mecca to #Medina (#July 16, 622). #For the most ancient civilizations on mythical but exact dates – the #Maya, for example, used the #Long #Count, a chronology that begins at 13.0.0.0.0 4 me 8 kumku (#August 13, 3114, BC).

#Today’s world is governed by the #Gregorian calendar, based in turn on the #Julian calendar, drawn up by the astronomer #Sosigenes of #Alexandria, which #Julius #Caesar spread in the #Roman #Empire from 46 BC. The #Julian calendar has 365 days divided into 12 months, the seventh of which, julius, was named in honor of #Julius #Caesar. There were proposals, later, that did not prosper: #Caligula wanted to call germanicus to #September, #Nero claudius to the month of #May, #Domitian domitianus to the month of #October. #Yours yes: julius for the month of #July. #It was he who decreed that the year would begin on #January 1, when the consuls assumed the government, instead of the traditional #March 1. #In other words, #January 1 is the day that the #New #Year begins since the time of #Julius #Caesar. #Not before.

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#We are governed by the #Julian calendar, but with the reform introduced by the #Gregorian calendar, established by #Pope #Gregory XIII in 1582. The reform consisted of eliminating 10 days from the calendar, which went from #Thursday, #October 4, 1582 to #Friday, #October 15 of 1582. The purpose of the reform, a reform that ran through all dates, which still causes problems for historians today, was simply to identify the spring equinox with #March 21, in order to be able to fulfill, at last, the decision voted by the first ecumenical council of the #Church, held in 325. The calendar was adopted immediately by the #Catholic countries, but until hundreds of years later by the #Protestant countries (#Great #Britain adopted it in 1752) and even centuries later by the #Orthodox countries (#Russia adopted it in 1918, after the #Bolshevik #Revolution). #It is a solar calendar, unlike the #Muslim and the #Chinese, which are lunar calendars, although, as in the #Chinese, the day begins at midnight, not at sunset, as in the #Muslim.

#Researcher from UNAM (#Cialc)
[email protected]





[ source link ]
https://www.milenio.com/opinion/carlos-tello-diaz/carta-de-viaje/ano-nuevo_4

##Year

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