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A Spanish finding, among the main advances in physics | Science


#Physicist #Adán #Cabello shows the images of the laboratory where an ideal measurement of a quantum sequence has been achieved.ALEJANDRO RUESGA

#An investigation with #Spanish leadership, by the professor of the #Department of #Applied #Physics of the #University of #Seville #Adán #Cabello (#Madrid, 1968), has been selected as one of the 10 most relevant findings of the year just concluded in the field of physics. #His measurement of the quantum state of a strontium ion, not only at the beginning and end of the process, but also during it, in just one millionth of a second, has opened a huge door to quantum physics, a branch in which many Theorists hitherto assumed the impossibility of ideal measurements as an unavoidable circumstance.

#Scientific publication #Physics #World has selected #Cabello’s discovery, made in collaboration with #Matthias #Kleinmann, #Fabian #Pokorny, #Chi #Zhang, #Gerard #Higgins and #Markus #Hennrich, physicists from the universities of #Stockholm, #Siegen (#Germany) and the #Basque #Country, as one of the most outstanding advances of 2020. “It was a surprise. #It was an obsession for #Matthias and me to show that ideal measurements are possible. #It is no longer the entelechy that everyone thought, “says #Cabello after learning the distinction.

The selection of the most important discoveries in physics, according to the editor of the scientific publication #Hamish #Johnston, has focused on three premises: that they represent a “significant advance in knowledge”, that they are “relevant to scientific progress and applications in the real world ”and that have aroused the interest of the research community. These are the 10 selected findings:

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#Silicon based light emitter. #This research has been considered the most relevant of the year by #Physics #World. #Elham #Fadaly, #Alain #Dijkstra y #Erik #Bakkers, from the #Eindhoven #University of #Technology (#Holland), and #Jens #Renó #Suckert, from the #Friedrich-Schiller-Universitét #Jena in #Germany, have created a material, from the alloy of silicon and germanium with a hexagonal crystal structure, that emits light at wavelengths used for optical telecommunications. #In addition to having applications in telecommunications and optical computing, the new material could be used to create chemical sensors.

The movie ever taken from a quantum sequence in a millionth of a second. #Gerhart Lüders (#Hamburg, 1920- Göttingen, 1995) established that, for quantum mechanics to be consistent, ideal measurements had to exist. #And this has been the obsession of #Adán #Cabello and his team. #Until the experiment led by the #Spanish physicist, many physicists assumed that the measurement changes the (quantum) state of the system being measured and that it is instantaneous. #But the research of this #European team, published in #Physical #Review #Letters, has shown that this is not the case, that there is a succession, that it is measurable and that it leaves the system in a state, perhaps different, but also with maximum information.

“We have shown that what can happen in nature happens from the logical point of view and that you can advance with ideal measurements, which are not impossible, that you can have great control of a quantum measurement process. #This makes things much clearer, it gives you peace of mind, ”says #Cabello.

The discovery not only ends the prejudices of some physicists, opening the field of research, but it has immediate applications in one of the next revolutions: quantum computing. The finding allows investigating how the noise that affects quantum computers appears and that makes them unable to unfold their full potential.

#Quantum correlations between light and LIGO mirrors. #Cabello believes that it is already important to share the distinction of his finding with others such as those of #Haocun #Yu and #Lee #McCuller of the #Massachusetts #Institute of #Technology (MIT), also related to quantum physics. #According to the uncertainty principle enunciated by the #German theoretical physicist #Werner #Heisenberg in 1927, the more certainty is sought in determining the position of a particle, the less its momentum, mass and velocity are known. The two MIT researchers have shown how to overcome the standard quantum limit by introducing correlations between the object’s position / momentum uncertainty and the photon number / phase uncertainty of the light it reflects. #This type of quantum correlation occurs at the #Gravitational #Wave #Observatory (LIGO) and allows better detection of gravitational waves (deformations of space-time) by this instrument and other observatories.

#Neutrino #Observation of the #Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) #Cycle in the #Sun. The #Borexino particle physics experiment has confirmed a theory proposed more than 80 years ago. #This detector, installed in the underground laboratory of #Gran #Sasso (near #Rome), allows to measure the flux of solar neutrinos with high precision, to know the processes of nuclear fusion that occur in the center of the star and to determine properties of propagation and oscillation. neutrinos.

#First observation of a liquid crystal “nematic ferroelectric”. The #Soft #Materials #Research #Center (SMRC) at the #University of #Colorado #Boulder has discovered the phase of matter called “ferroelectric nematics”, which was raised a century ago. #Noel #Clark, professor of physics and director of SMRC, has demonstrated his discovery by applying a weak electric field to an organic molecule known as RM734. “The discovery could open up a host of technological innovations, from new types of displays to the reinvented memory of the computer,” #Clark said.

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X-ray detectors with perovskite. #Wanyi #Nie, from #Los #Alamos #National #Laboratory, has developed an X-ray detector up to 100 times more sensitive than silicon ones through the use of thin-film perovskites, which provide between 10 and 40 times more absorption capacity. #This new type of X-ray detector allows images to be obtained at extremely low radiation doses.

#Fundamental limit constants in the speed of sound. #Kostya #Trachenko, from #Queen #Mary #University of #London, #Bartomeu #Monserrat and #Chris #Pickard, from #Cambridge #University, and #Vadim #Brazhkin, of the #Russian #Academy of #Sciences, have shown that the upper limit of the speed of sound in solids and liquids depends on two dimensionless fundamental constants: that of fine structure and the proton-electron mass ratio. #According to their calculations, the fastest possible speed of sound is 36 kilometers per second, as published in #Science #Advances. “Sound waves in solids are already very important in many scientific fields. #For example, seismologists use sound waves initiated by earthquakes deep within the #Earth’s interior to understand the nature of seismic and the properties of the #Earth’s composition. They are also of interest to materials scientists because sound waves are associated with important elastic properties, including the ability to resist stress, ”explained #Chris #Pickard, professor of materials science at the #University of #Cambridge.

#Propagation of light. #Andrea #Alá, #Qiaoliang #Bao, #Cheng-Wei #Qiu and an international team of collaborators from #New #York, #Singapore #National, #Monash, #China and #Texas #Geosciences #Universities have demonstrated that scattering and diffraction-free propagation of light is possible. . #This research has important implications for nanoimaging, quantum optics, computing, and low-energy optical signal processing.

#Mixed bundles to fight cancer. #Joao #Seco, of the #German #Cancer #Research #Center in #Heidelberg, and #Simon #Jolly, of the #University #College #London, have shown that the use of mixed beams of carbon ions, for the irradiation of a tumor, and of helium allow a more precise administration of the therapy.

The first superconductor at room temperature. #Researchers from the #Universities of #Rochester and #Nevada have succeeded in developing a superconducting material at room temperature. #Specifically, they have achieved superconductivity at temperatures of up to 15 degrees #Celsius and in a material rich in hydrogen at high pressure.

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https://elpais.com/ciencia/2020-12-31/un-hallazgo-espanol-entre-los-principales-avances-de-la-fisica.html

##Spanish #finding #among #main #advances #physics ##Science

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