Several vaccines have already been developed to combat coronavirus around the world. We will tell you about where and which of them are used, and who is ready to purchase new vaccines and in what volumes.
Emergency registration of COVID-19 vaccines has become possible after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) on January 30, 2020.
As a result, at the beginning of 2021, about 200 potential vaccines against coronavirus were being developed in the world, human trials began for 63 drugs, and six of them are already used in different countries to vaccinate the population, although the third stage of clinical trials has not yet been completed. For comparison, under normal conditions, the development, registration and approval of a new vaccine take up to 10 years. DW on what vaccines against coronavirus are already available and in which countries they are used.
BioNTech / Pfizer vaccine
The vaccine, developed by the German company BioNTech and the American pharmaceutical concern Pfizer, is the first approved in December 2020 for use in the EU and the first officially approved by WHO. In November 2020, the European Commission signed a contract with BioNTech and Pfizer for the supply of 200 million doses with the possibility of additional purchase of another 100 million. At the end of November, the EC took advantage of this option. And in early January 2021, the European Union signed a contract with BioNTech and Pfizer for an additional purchase of another 300 million doses of vaccine.
Its use is also permitted in countries such as the USA, Great Britain, Saudi Arabia. In total, about 19 countries intend to protect their citizens from the coronavirus with the BioNTech / Pfizer vaccine. It is now produced in Germany and Belgium. In February, BioNTech intends to open an additional 250 million dose vaccine production facility in Marburg, Germany. This, according to the firm’s calculations, will make it possible to produce 750 million doses per year.
BioNTech and Pfizer jointly plan to produce 2 billion doses of vaccine in 2021. The United States also ordered 200 million doses. In addition to BioNTech / Pfizer, the EU has signed contracts with six other coronavirus vaccine manufacturers.
The developer of the Moderna vaccine is the American biotechnology company of the same name. In December last year, this drug was approved for use in the United States. On January 6, it was approved by the EU as well. The developers said they will manufacture most of the vaccine in Cambridge and Massachusetts, where one of Moderna’s facilities is located. In 2021, it is planned to produce about 1 billion doses.
The European Union intends to buy 80 million doses of the American vaccine. If necessary, he provided himself with the opportunity to order it in the same volume. The USA will receive 200 million doses with the possibility of an additional order of 300 million doses. The UK, Japan, Switzerland and South Korea have also placed orders for the vaccine. Canada will buy 40 million doses. Since January 12, this drug, along with the BioNTech / Pfizer vaccine, has been used in Germany.
Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine
The AstraZeneca vaccine was developed by a Swedish-British pharmaceutical manufacturer in collaboration with the University of Oxford. This vaccine is already licensed in the UK, India and Argentina. The developers intend to produce about 3 billion doses in 2021. They are going to produce the vaccine in India.
Vaccine Sputnik V
Sputnik V was the first coronavirus vaccine. It was developed in Russia at the Gamaleya Research Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology and was registered on August 11 after the end of two clinical trials of the first and second phases. Registration of a vaccine without large-scale testing has drawn criticism from vaccine researchers in other countries.
Sputnik V has already been approved for use in Belarus, Bolivia, Argentina, Algeria and Serbia. This vaccine will be produced in India, China, Brazil and South Korea. According to Kirill Dmitriev, CEO of the Russian Direct Investment Fund, in the first week of December, the fund received preliminary applications for the purchase of 1.2 billion doses of vaccine from more than 50 countries.
The Sinopharm vaccine was developed in China and is currently in its final phase of clinical trials. Despite the fact that officially China is not among the countries that have begun to vaccinate their citizens against the coronavirus, in fact, about a million Chinese have already been vaccinated – these are employees of strategic structures and enterprises.
Sinopharm was approved for use in the United Arab Emirates, which ordered 3 million doses. And also in Bahrain and Pakistan, which announced that it is ready to buy 1.2 million doses of this drug from China. By the end of 2021, Sinopharm intends to release one billion doses of its vaccine.
The PRC is currently testing a second candidate vaccine, Sinovac, which is being developed by one of the Sinopharm branches in Wuhan. Beijing plans to produce 300 million doses of vaccine per year. Singapore, Turkey, Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have already ordered it.
The Covaxin vaccine was developed by the Indian company Bharat Biotech International. Since January 3, its use in conjunction with the British AstraZeneca has been authorized in India. 20 million doses of this drug are already in stock, despite criticism from experts. Bharat Biotech International intends to produce about 700 million doses of its vaccine this year. India is among the countries most affected by the pandemic. About 150,000 people have died in India from the coronavirus.